Bayu Nurwinanto, SKM, CSE


Safety is the characteristic that is most frequently found in the most well-known businesses in the world. In actuality, factory productivity and process safety go hand in hand. Regulators' attention has been called to process safety in the last century by several catastrophic catastrophes. Process safety is prioritized by stringent laws and requirements in a number of developed, industrialized nations. various are, in fact, the minimal requirements in various countries to keep up business licenses and permits. Nonetheless, there is ongoing discussion on process safety and its significance in developing and underdeveloped countries. Process safety cannot be only governed by laws, guidelines, policies, etc. Many different things are needed to create and keep a trustworthy and safe work environment. Even if they are easily represented on paper, these kinds of things are difficult to build in a highly competitive setting. Government laws, banking policies, management commitment, and legislation all work together to develop firms that handle process safety prudently. This essay examines a few crucial elements of setting up an effective process safety management (PSM) program. Additionally, the report examines the several components that go into making a valuable PSM program.


The reliability, safety, and profitability of manufacturing activities are crucial to their sustainability. Similarly, the manufacturing unit's products need to be priced competitively, meet consumer expectations, and adhere to strict quality standards. By putting enough barriers in place to ensure that the business is run safely, effectively, dependably, and financially, process safety management (PSM) strategies benefit the company. Furthermore, PSM methods help the company produce goods that meet strict standards.

Worldwide, manufacturing and process units utilise PSM techniques originally developed by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, more often known as DuPont. The fundamental structure for the U.S. Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards was established by the components of the process safety management system. To get or keep their business licence and the required permits, each company operating in the US must adhere to OSHA or DuPont PSM regulations. Similarly, a number of developed nations have appropriated the ideas of DuPont PSM and created legally-mandated safety and health standards that are comparable.

Many devastating accidents have happened in many different industries over the past few decades, prompting the creation of new safety and health laws. The nations have established sufficient regulations to ensure the safe and dependable running of business units due to the cost, fatality, environmental impact, and other factors related with the incidents. These kinds of rules have their roots in DuPont PSM methods. Despite the widespread discussion and application of these methods and PSM components, the standards, requirements, and components of PSM have not yet been succinctly documented in the literature that is now accessible. The paper goes over the different components of the PSM program and talks about some important safety management issues.

This article discusses relevant studies related to industrial safety and reliability. There was an examination of the interconnections between the PSM components: 

  1. Process hazard analysis and mechanical integrity had the strongest interrelationships among all the PSM elements, according to their analysis. They created a PSM matrix that will be helpful in the creation of a comprehensive PSM system. 
  2. The events were presented in a way that allowed the audience to comprehend the underlying reasons, the fallout, the lessons discovered, and the steps that could be taken to keep accidents from happening again. The history of process safety incidents, the lessons discovered from them, and how PSM evolved from those lessons were all taken into account by Long.
  3. In his reflections on his own experience with PSM.
  4. Shares his thoughts and practical experience. He talks about the difficulties of using PSM in a processing facility. The implementation of PSM elements in a fertilizer plant and the challenges associated with configuring PSM programs in relation to the numerous tasks that must be completed in the plant. 
  5. From the perspective of an operations engineer, the article explains the need for PSM and the tasks that must be completed within the plant. 
  6. Explain this. They outline the plant's necessary support mechanisms for keeping up an effective PSM program. The combination of the mechanical integrity and plant reliability elements.
  7. The publication included a full list of the different integration-related steps. 
  8. Maintenance engineering is examined, along with the essential components like PSM that are necessary for a maintenance team in process facilities to operate effectively.
  9. Delves into the topic of operational discipline in process plants, specifically how it mirrors the culture of process safety and the company's financial performance.
  10. Talk about how an operational discipleship program must be put in place in order to increase process safety.


The PSM system consists of various parts. Every component has a specific purpose and acts as a safety barrier to keep the company safe from possible safety incidents. The amount of barriers needed for a particular firm usually depends on the nature of the enterprise; the more risky the enterprise, the more barriers are needed to keep it secure.

It is imperative to acknowledge that barriers are inherently imperfect and that multiple flaws may contribute to their breakdown. Human error, human fatigue, low budget, short cuts, poor communication, weak team, poor coordination among the team, improper training, equipment and control breakdown, poor operations and maintenance practices, inadequate employee involvement, outdated procedures, and many other manifestations can all be signs of defects in the barriers.

Having a PSM program that is flawed in multiple ways is thus useless to the organization. In essence, a solid foundation needs to be established before a PSM program is implemented. A key component of the PSM program's implementation is management leadership and dedication to safety and dependable operation. Establishing an efficient PSM program, starting an operational discipline, and creating a strong safety culture are all quite simple once management leadership and commitment are in place.

When a transparent safety policy is put in place and every person is made to answer for their safety, the employees can see that management is leading and committed. Safety needs to be prioritized to the point where working in the business unit is considered a requirement, and each person needs to be held responsible for their actions. In a same vein, management needs to allocate the funds required to control risk and safety. Tools, training, controls, equipment, maintenance, hiring the right people, budgeting, and so on are examples of resources. Employers may show their commitment to safety by including them, hearing their suggestions, and praising their efforts. Similarly, management must be actively involved with teams related to dependability and safety. It is essential for employees to understand management's commitment to safety, and this is the cornerstone of creating a safety culture within a business.

The dedication of upper management to safety is the foundation upon which the company's safety culture is built. In terms of safety and risk, management needs to set clear goals and objectives, communicate to employees their responsibility for safety, have enough training programs, provide the necessary staffing, enforce engineering standards, promote improved communications, establish regular safety audits, follow up on these audits, conduct in-depth incident investigations, etc. The business unit's personnel are instantly instilled with a safety culture when such rigorous activities and programs are established.

The best time to drive a PSM program is after the organization has created a strong safety culture. PSM aspects go beyond policies, procedures, rules, and the like, as was previously mentioned. They serve as safety barriers, guarding against major safety incidents that could affect the business. Sufficient staff members must receive training to act as advocates for these components, and management commitment and leadership are critical to the success of a PSM program inside an organization.


Organizational operational discipline is a hallmark of a well-designed PSM program. This discipline will push for the organization's dependable and safe operation. Additionally, discipline will help staff members do each task accurately each and every time. Therefore, in addition to safety, an effective PSM program will undoubtedly encourage quality, productivity, and dependability, as well as help the company turn a profit.
We'll talk about the original PSM elements here. Since each component has sufficient quality to be treated as a stand-alone review piece, the material will be as brief and accurate as possible.

1. Process hazard analysis (PHA)

When it comes to processes that involve potentially dangerous chemicals, a process hazard analysis is the way to go because it is methodical, comprehensive, and orderly. For hazardous systems, this kind of study needs to be done both at the beginning of the project and on a regular basis while it's in operation.
throughout a PHA carried out throughout the operating phase, operational knowledge, technical skills, maintenance operations, and prior experiences must all be taken into account. Every employee who works with the hazardous system needs to be covered by PHA. Having a well-rounded team will aid in identifying all possible risks and system failure types.
When performing a PHA, a variety of tools can be used, including fault tree analysis, hazard and operability study (HAZOP), failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and what-if analysis.

2. Operating procedures and safe practices

In order to ensure that all plant activities are carried out in a safe manner, the employer is required to create and enforce documented operating procedures. Procedures need to be meticulous, well considered, and fully applicable to the plant's current system. Relevant personnel must periodically review these processes and make any necessary updates.
The systems and equipment that the staff will be using require training. Periodic refresher training also needs to be offered and recorded.

3. Management of change (MOC)

It is crucial to carefully plan, assess, authorize, and document any changes to the process system or current equipment before implementing them. Such adjustments must be reflected in the appropriate drawings. In a similar vein, the procedures must be changed, and the staff members need to receive sufficient training to operate the new system.
MOC assists the organization in monitoring modifications made to the current system; these modifications are recorded and made accessible for any upcoming assessments.

4. Quality assurance (QA)

The launch of a new project is not complete without quality assurance. A system's components—parts, machinery, controls, etc.—are evaluated in accordance with engineering standards prior to being physically accepted in the receiving department. Before accepting the concerned item from the vendor, material test results, certificates of compliance, test reports for equipment, etc., are all assessed. These records are archived for any future needs. Likewise, in accordance with engineering standards and laws, the systems are examined for any possible flaws.

5. Mechanical integrity (MI)

During the system's operational phase, the Mechanical Integrity module is crucial. According to engineering specifications, necessary audits and monitoring pertaining to system maintenance must be carried out. Similarly, all process-critical equipment and control systems require maintenance that is carried out in accordance with technical standards and rules. Reports and maintenance operations need to be recorded for future use. Similarly, all necessary components have to be purchased in accordance with engineering standards, and reports have to be recorded for future needs.

6. Pre start-up safety reviews (PSSR)

Prior to the actual commencement, PSSR must be performed on any new or old system that has undergone any changes. A comprehensive PSSR must be completed before the system is really set up. The PSSR team needs to be made up of knowledgeable staff members so that possible risks are found before the system is really started. Before the system is started, the PSSR's recommendations must be followed, and a system evaluation must be performed.

7. Training and performance

It is imperative that all staff members receive sufficient training to carry out their duties effectively. Employees must receive yearly refresher training to ensure they follow the established operating procedures. Employee performance needs to be regularly evaluated, and sufficient constructive criticism needs to be given on a regular basis.
Employees must also receive cross-training to enable them to fill a variety of roles inside the company. Employees must receive cross-training as required in order for the company to be prepared to face major emergencies.

8. Contractor safety

To a large extent, contractors lack familiarity with the plant's intricate processes and potential dangers. Therefore, in order for contractors to handle emergency situations, a full orientation must be provided. Similarly, before beginning a task, contractors could not be aware of the necessary licenses, background checks, etc. They could also be ignorant of the requirements that must be met by systems. Before their work permit is executed, this information needs to be properly explained and documented.

9. Incident investigation

A comprehensive investigation is required to identify the causes of every safety issue that occurs in the facility. In order for the concerned personnel to remember the details of the incident clearly, an inquiry of this kind needs to be started right away.
A safety issue typically has several contributing factors. Investigations into incidents typically reveal intriguing details that might not otherwise be taken into account while the plant is operating normally. A certified employee must conduct the investigation, which must be impartial and focused on identifying the factors that contributed to the occurrence. Typically, fishbone analysis and the five whys analysis are used in event investigations.

10. Emergency planning and response

Emergency pre-planning and training are crucial to ensuring that staff know what to do in the event of a catastrophe, even with the best-laid plans. This calls for the creation and implementation of an emergency safety plan for the entire plant.

11. Auditing

The plant's operations, processes, machinery, and systems must undergo regular compliance and safety audits. Within the allotted time, the problems detailed in the audit report must be fixed. The documents and reports need to be stored in a file in case they are needed later.

12. Process safety information

An essential component of process safety information is the compilation of data pertaining to any potentially harmful substances used or generated by the process. It also compiles comprehensive technical data on the machinery and systems employed in the procedure. The foundation for recognizing and comprehending a process's risks is the information compiled on process safety. The data required to do an exhaustive PHA is provided in this module.
The PSM components (safety barriers) that are discussed here include administrative controls, equipment, controls, and people. Any of these could have flaws, and the goal is to minimize the flaws to prevent the barrier from failing and serving no use at all.
After a brief overview of the many components of PSM, it is evident that an organization cannot maintain a PSM program without the dedication, leadership, and cultivation of a robust safety culture by its management. Numerous companies attempt to carry out this program without dedication. It has been demonstrated that these PSM initiatives cannot continue and would not help the company.


With regard to ethics, it is a must for businesses all over the world to provide their employees with a working environment that is safe, dependable, and healthy. Undoubtedly, this kind of atmosphere fosters a positive work environment and raises staff productivity. Eliminating dangers is the best approach to creating a safe work environment, but manufacturing and continuous process facilities are undoubtedly incapable of doing so. Thus, in order to maintain a safe, dependable, and healthy work environment, safety barriers and a safety culture must be developed.
Industries are shifting to developing countries as a result of rising labor costs. Thus, it is the responsibility of emerging countries to recognize the significance of process safety and to entice investors to establish process safety-focused enterprises.
Government regulations, banking practices, and laws must all support the organization's and management's efforts to ensure process safety. Otherwise, given the costs involved and the fierce competition in the market, it is unrealistic to anticipate such a committed commitment from the leadership. Without sufficient backing from all sectors and to remain competitive, the company will undoubtedly use lax policies, circumvent regulations, use inferior products, etc. All of these could result in a regrettable, disastrous event that would cause enormous financial loss, casualties, grave environmental effects, detrimental effects on foreign investments, etc. Taking all of this into account, it makes perfect sense to anticipate that the government, financial institutions, and laws will assist the industry with these kinds of process safety measures.


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